Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 11,000 BC, followed by sheep between 11,000 and 9,000 BC.
Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan around 8,500 BC.
In the earliest levels of Merhgarh, wild game such as gazelle, swamp deer, blackbuck, chital, wild ass, wild goat, wild sheep, boar, and nilgai were all hunted for food.
These are successively replaced by domesticated sheep, goats, and humped zebu cattle by the fifth millennium BC, indicating the gradual transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture.
In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was domesticated to maize by 4,000 BC. Camels were domesticated late, perhaps around 3,000 BC.
Bananas were cultivated and hybridized in the same period in Papua New Guinea.Modern agriculture has raised social, political, and environmental issues including water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies.In response, organic farming developed in the twentieth century as an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides.An abundance of readily storable wild grains and pulses enabled hunter-gatherers in some areas to form the first settled villages at this time.Exact dates are hard to determine, as people collected and ate seeds before domesticating them, and plant characteristics may have changed during this period without human selection.